WATCH: Factors That Affect The Chances Of Getting Pregnant In Women(VIDEO)
First Overview of Pregnancy
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman. A multiple pregnancy involves more than one offspring, such as with twins. Pregnancy can occur by sexual intercourse or assisted reproductive technology. Childbirth typically occurs around 40 weeks from the last menstrual period (LMP). This is just over nine months, where each month averages 29½ days. When measured from conception it is about 38 weeks. An embryo is the developing offspring during the first eight weeks following conception, after which, the term fetus is used until birth. Symptoms of early pregnancy may include missed periods, tender breasts, nausea and vomiting, hunger, and frequent urination. Pregnancy may be confirmed with a pregnancy test.
Pregnancy is typically divided into three trimesters. The first trimester is from week one through 12 and includes conception. Conception is when the sperm fertilizes the egg. The fertilized egg then travels down the fallopian tube and attaches to the inside of the uterus, where it begins to form the embryo and placenta. The first trimester carries the highest risk of miscarriage (natural death of embryo or fetus). The second trimester is from week 13 through 28. Around the middle of the second trimester, movement of the fetus may be felt. At 28 weeks, more than 90% of babies can survive outside of the uterus if provided with high-quality medical care. The third trimester is from 29 weeks through 40 weeks.
Prenatal care improves pregnancy outcomes. Prenatal care may include taking extra folic acid, avoiding drugs and alcohol, regular exercise, blood tests, and regular physical examinations. Complications of pregnancy may include disorders of high blood pressure, gestational diabetes, iron-deficiency anemia, and severe nausea and vomiting among others. Term pregnancy is 37 to 41 weeks, with early term being 37 and 38 weeks, full term 39 and 40 weeks, and late term 41 weeks. After 41 weeks, it is known as post term. Babies born before 37 weeks are preterm and are at higher risk of health problems such as cerebral palsy. Delivery before 39 weeks by labor induction or caesarean section is not recommended unless required for other medical reasons.
About 213 million pregnancies occurred in 2012, of which, 190 million were in the developing world and 23 million were in the developed world. The number of pregnancies in women ages 15 to 44 is 133 per 1,000 women. About 10% to 15% of recognized pregnancies end in miscarriage. In 2013, complications of pregnancy resulted in 293,000 deaths, down from 377,000 deaths in 1990. Common causes include maternal bleeding, complications of abortion, high blood pressure of pregnancy, maternal sepsis, and obstructed labor. Globally, 40% of pregnancies are unplanned. Half of unplanned pregnancies are aborted. Among unintended pregnancies in the United States, 60% of the women used birth control to some extent during the month pregnancy occurred.
Signs and symptoms
The symptoms and discomforts of pregnancy are those presentations and conditions that result from pregnancy but do not significantly interfere with activities of daily living or pose a threat to the health of the mother or baby. This is in contrast to pregnancy complications. Sometimes a symptom that is considered a discomfort can be considered a complication when it is more severe. For example, nausea (morning sickness) can be a discomfort, but if, in combination with significant vomiting it causes a water-electrolyte imbalance, it is a complication known as hyperemesis gravidarum.
Common symptoms and discomforts of pregnancy include:
Pelvic girdle pain
Braxton Hicks contractions. Occasional, irregular, and often painless contractions that occur several times per day.
Edema (swelling). Common complaint in advancing pregnancy. Caused by compression of the inferior vena cava and pelvic veins by the uterus leads to increased hydrostatic pressure in lower extremities.
Increased urinary frequency. A common complaint, caused by increased intravascular volume, elevated glomerular filtration rate, and compression of the bladder by the expanding uterus.
Urinary tract infection
Varicose veins. Common complaint caused by relaxation of the venous smooth muscle and increased intravascular pressure.
Haemorrhoids (piles). Swollen veins at or inside the anal area. Caused by impaired venous return, straining associated with constipation, or increased intra-abdominal pressure in later pregnancy.
Regurgitation, heartburn, and nausea.
Breast tenderness is common during the first trimester, and is more common in women who are pregnant at a young age.
In addition, pregnancy may result in pregnancy complication such as deep vein thrombosis or worsening of an intercurrent disease in pregnancy.
In most cultures, pregnant women have a special status in society and receive particularly gentle care. At the same time, they are subject to expectations that may exert great psychological pressure, such as having to produce a son and heir. In many traditional societies, pregnancy must be preceded by marriage, on pain of ostracism of mother and (illegitimate) child.
Overall, pregnancy is accompanied by numerous customs that are often subject to ethnological research, often rooted in traditional medicine or religion. The baby shower is an example of a modern custom.
Pregnancy is an important topic in sociology of the family. The prospective child may preliminarily be placed into numerous social roles. The parents’ relationship and the relation between parents and their surroundings are also affected.
A belly cast may be made during pregnancy as a keepsake.
Main article: Pregnancy in art
Images of pregnant women, especially small figurines, were made in traditional cultures in many places and periods, though it is rarely one of the most common types of image. These include ceramic figures from some Pre-Columbian cultures, and a few figures from most of the ancient Mediterranean cultures. Many of these seem to be connected with fertility. Identifying whether such figures are actually meant to show pregnancy is often a problem, as well as understanding their role in the culture concerned.
Among the oldest surviving examples of the depiction of pregnancy are prehistoric figurines found across much of Eurasia and collectively known as Venus figurines. Some of these appear to be pregnant.
Due to the important role of the Mother of God in Christianity, the Western visual arts have a long tradition of depictions of pregnancy, especially in the biblical scene of the Visitation, and devotional images called a Madonna del Parto.
The unhappy scene usually called Diana and Callisto, showing the moment of discovery of Callisto’s forbidden pregnancy, is sometimes painted from the Renaissance onwards. Gradually, portraits of pregnant women began to appear, with a particular fashion for “pregnancy portraits” in elite portraiture of the years around 1600.
Pregnancy, and especially pregnancy of unmarried women, is also an important motif in literature. Notable examples include Hardy’s Tess of the d’Urbervilles and Goethe’s Faust.
WATCH: Factors That Affect The Chances Of Getting Pregnant In Women(VIDEO)
You could be in the best of health, have a perfect sex life, and a more than willing and supporting partner to share the joys of parenting. But do you know there could be things you are doing unwittingly that are affecting your chances of getting pregnant. While a healthy lifestyle is an indicator of good health and fertility, you should pay more attention to the little details of your life that are seriously cutting down your chances of being a mother ever. These are the factors affecting fertility in women.
Today we look at some plausible reasons you may not be able to conceive a child. You need to immediately get rid of these bad habits if you want to increase the chances of getting pregnant